Fivesys rootkit exploits Microsoft certification system

- Posted in Exploit by

Fivesys is a rootkit that has been recently discovered in the wild. A rootkit is a type of malware designed to install in the background on a target machine and are also designed to be hard to impossible to detect by normal malware scanning and remediation processes. Rootkits as a class of malware isn't new, but the viability of rootkits overall, has been reduced due to countermeasures developed to mitigate the vast majority of rootkits on the internet. The difference with this rootkit is its packaging that mimics a valid signed driver; it even has a Microsoft signed certificate.

The purpose of the Fivesys rootkit to date, is to redirect HTTP/HTTPS traffic to an attackers predefined IP addresses. The current package has a list of 300 different IPs through proxy designed to prevent blocking traffic. The package also contains a driver blacklist to prevent it being removed or overwritten with a legitimate package. It is it thought by Bitdefender, the company that made the discovery, that the primary target of Fivesys is online games, with the intent to steal game login credentials and hijack in-game transactions for payment credentials/data. As the prior statement cannot be fully verified at this time, we would like to note that re-programming of the package will likely occur resulting in Fivesys being weaponized for any number of similar attack vectors.

As I outline in my first paragraph, the major issue with Fivesys is that the creator has managed to pass the package through Microsoft's driver validation program, which we have confirmed is a fully automated signing process with no manual oversight or flag for review. This allows an actor to use the process to bypasses all of the inbuilt windows security features, leaving machines vulnerable until it is discovered.


Our recommendation to prevent Fivesys or any other rootkits from affecting your environment is to be diligent in your downloads by confirming you are on the manufacturers site. Input the url to the manufacturer manually, do not click on links, and do not use the google search to click a link to go to the download. Current exploits in AdSense and other links, advertising links to legitimate sites that are user uploaded sources, all pose a real risk to Fivesys being downloaded instead of the legitimate driver/software you are after - see our posts on the AdSense exploit. Make sure all your teams, staff and users are trained on cyber security.

FoggyWeb: Targeted NOBELIUM malware leads to persistent backdoor

- Posted in Vulnerability by

Microsoft is continuing to develop solutions against the malware attack on its Office365 and Azure products. The malicious actor they coined FoggyWeb, is built on the NOBELUM codebase to create malicious sets of code that can draw from significant operational resources, including custom-built malware and tools, to attack systems and obtain credentials. The code creates a backdoor to Microsoft security and and employs multiple tactics including attaching to multiple DLL's. Once compromised an attacker pursues credential theft with the objective of gaining admin-level access to Active Directory Federation Services (AD FS) servers.

Once NOBELIUM obtains credentials and successfully compromises a server, the actor relies on that access to maintain persistence and deepen its infiltration using sophisticated malware and tools using FoggyWeb to remotely exfiltrate the configuration database of compromised AD FS servers, decrypted token-signing certificate and token-decryption certificates, as well as downloading and executing additional components.

Microsoft recommends that if you think you are compromised you should immediately:

  1. Audit your on-premises and cloud infrastructure, including configuration, per-user and per-app settings, forwarding rules, and other changes the actor might have made to maintain their access
  2. Remove user and app access, review configurations for each, and re-issue new, strong credentials following documented industry best practices.
  3. Use a hardware security module (HSM) as described in securing AD FS servers to prevent the exfiltration of secrets by FoggyWeb.

We think you should do this anyway to be on the safe side.

Microsoft has implemented checks and balances into their security defender products and we recommend that you use these rather than third party applications from third party virus vendors. These vulnerabilities are not yet well understood by the third party vendors who are lagging behind Microsoft fixes and investigations.

Technical analysis Courtesy: Ramin Nafisi - Microsoft Threat Intelligence Center can be read here:

Indicators of compromise (IOCs) For IT professionals you can test for compromise by checking the indicators below:

Type Threat Name Threat Type Indicator
MD5 FoggyWeb Loader 5d5a1b4fafaf0451151d552d8eeb73ec
SHA-1 FoggyWeb Loader c896ece073dd01191cbc1d462bc2f47161828a83
SHA-256 FoggyWeb Loader 231b5517b583de102cde59630c3bf938155d17037162f663874e4662af2481b1
MD5 FoggyWeb Backdoor (encrypted) 9ff9401315d0f7258a9fcde0cfdef02b
SHA-1 FoggyWeb Backdoor (encrypted) 4597431f26424cb814c917168fa8d74d01ab7cd1
SHA-256 FoggyWeb Backdoor (encrypted) da0be762bb785085d36aec80ef1697e25fb15414514768b3bcaf798dd9c9b169
MD5 FoggyWeb Backdoor (encrypted) e9671d294ce41fe6dbb9637dc0157a88
SHA-1 FoggyWeb Backdoor (encrypted) 85cfeccbb48fd9f498d24711c66e458e0a80cc90
SHA-256 FoggyWeb Backdoor (encrypted) 568392bd815de9b677788addfc4fa4b0a5847464b9208d2093a8623bbecd81e6


While Microsoft continues to work on solutions and monitor the threat, the following actions are recommended:

  • Customers should review their AD FS Server configuration and implement changes to secure these systems from attacks -

  • We strongly recommend for organizations to harden and secure AD FS deployments through the following best practices:

  • Ensure only Active Directory Admins and AD FS Admins have admin rights to the AD FS system.

  • Reduce local Administrators’ group membership on all AD FS servers.
  • Require all cloud admins to use multi-factor authentication (MFA).
  • Ensure minimal administration capability via agents.
  • Limit on-network access via host firewall.
  • Ensure AD FS Admins use Admin Workstations to protect their credentials.
  • Place AD FS server computer objects in a top-level OU that doesn’t also host other servers.
  • Ensure that all GPOs that apply to AD FS servers apply only to them and not to any other servers. This limits potential privilege escalation through GPO modification.
  • Ensure that the installed certificates are protected against theft. Don’t store these on a share on the network and set a calendar reminder to ensure they get renewed before expiring (expired certificate breaks federation auth). Additionally, we recommend protecting signing keys or certificates in a hardware security module (HSM) attached to AD FS.
  • Set logging to the highest level and send the AD FS (and security) logs to a SIEM to correlate with AD authentication as well as Azure AD (or similar).
  • Remove unnecessary protocols and Windows features.
  • Use a long (>25 characters) and complex password for the AD FS service account. We recommend using a Group Managed Service Account (gMSA) as the service account, as it removes the need for managing the service account password over time by managing it automatically.
  • Update to the latest AD FS version for security and logging improvements (as always, test first).
  • When federated with Azure AD follow the best practices for securing and monitoring the AD FS trust with Azure AD.

AMD cpu security driver flawed.

- Posted in Vulnerability by

The ZeroPeril team discovered an issue with the AMD Platform Security Processor (PSP) which results in a vulnerability that opens memory allocation to exploitation. The purpose of the PSP chip is to manage the internal security of the CPU, and all internal components in a hardware driver approach that operates to control and distribute communication between the components and the CPU. The vulnerability occurs within the PSP's allocations to memory space (the systems' RAM). The team confirmed that an attacker may be able to send a request to the driver to allocate memory. If the request is for an amount of memory that is smaller than the set minimum allocation size within windows, the process will be allocated the minimum allocation. An example of what I mean by the prior statement is, if say, the memory request is for 10 bytes of memory space, and the minimum allocation size allowed by windows is 2048 bytes (2KB) then the memory request will be filled with the full 2KB of memory, when all was requested was 10 bytes.

So what does that prior assessment mean? It means that an attacker can scavenge through idle memory space, this is possible because Microsoft doesn't have a cleanup process for unallocated memory. Such memory may have been used previously for other task(s). Unallocated memory can and does store files from previously run tasks, thus leaving whatever leftover memory contents is present, available to be accessed by any other actor. This could be anything from documents accessed through an office suite, to login credentials stored in an application instance, such as credentials used for banking in a web browser.

Our recommendation is to patch as soon as possible for affected devices as AMD has released a patch named. This can be done by confirming Microsoft update has updated the AMD Chipset Driver to version